Hades is the lord of the dead and ruler of the nether
world, which is referred to as the domain of Hades
or, by transference, as Hades alone. He is the son
of Cronus and Rhea. When the three sons of Cronus
divided the world among each other, Hades was given
the underworld, while his brothers Zeus and Poseidon
took the upperworld and the sea respectively. He ruled
the underworld together with Persephone, whom he abducted
from the upperworld. Zeus ordered him to release Persephone
back into the care of her mother Demeter, but before
she left he gave her a pomegranate. When she ate it,
it bound her to the underworld forever/ Hades sits
on a throne made of ebony, and carries a scepter.
He also has a helmet, given to him by the Cyclopes,
which makes him invisible. Hades rules the dead, assisted
by various (demonic) helpers, such as Thanatos and
Hypnos, the ferryman Charon, and the hound Cerberus.
Many heroes from Greek mythology have descended into
the underworld, either to question the shades or trying
to free them. Although Hades does not allow his subjects
to leave his domain, on several occasions he has granted
permission, such as the time Orpheus requested the
return of his beloved Eurydice. Hades possesses the
riches of the earth, and is referred to as 'the Rich
One'. Possibly also because, as Sophocles writes,
'the gloomy Hades enriches himself with our sighs
and our tears'. Of all the gods, Hades is the one
who is liked less and even the gods themselves have
an aversion of him. People avoided speaking his name
lest they attracted his unwanted attention. With their
faces averted they sacrificed black sheep, whose blood
they let drip into pits, and when they prayed to him,
they would bang their hands on the ground. The narcissus
and the cypress are sacred to him. Other names include
Clymenus ('notorious'), Eubuleus ('well-guessing')
and Polydegmon ('who receives many').
The son of King Boreas of Thrace. In his vanity he
compared himself and his wife Rhodope with Zeus and
Hera. Zeus punished them by turning them into mountain
with the same name (the current Balkan).
A son of Poseidon. He pursued Alcippe, a daughter
of Ares and Aglaulus, with his love, for which Ares
Tree nymphs who lived and died with the tree they
In Greek mythology, Harmonia is the goddess of harmony
and concord. She is the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite
(other sources say Zeus and Electra). She was married
to the Theban ruler Cadmus, and as such was beloved
by the Thebans. Upon her wedding she received a necklace
and a garment, which proved fatal to who wished to
possess them. Harmonia is the mother of Ino and Semele.
"Robbers". In earlier versions of Greek myth, Harpies
were described as beautiful, winged maidens. Later
they became winged monsters with the face of an ugly
old woman and equipped with crooked, sharp talons.
They were represented carrying off persons to the
underworld and inflicting punishment or tormenting
them. Those persons were never seen again. They robbed
the food from Phineus, but were driven away by Cailas
and Zetes, the Boreads, and since then they lived
on the Strophades. The Harpies were probably the personification
of storm winds. They are: Aello, Celaeno, and Ocypete.
The Greek form of the Egyptian Harpa-Khruti (Horus
the child). He was represented as a naked boy sucking
his finger. The Greeks made him the god of silence
Hebes is the goddess of youth, and the daughter of
Zeus and Hera. She poured the nectar of the gods on
the Olympus until Ganymede replaced her. Hebe also
prepared Ares' bath, and helped Hera to her chariot.
After Heracles became a god, he married her. The Romans
called her Juventas ("youth"). She was portrayed as
a young woman, wearing a sleeveless dress. On various
vases she is shown as cup bearer of the gods, or as
bride of Heracles. Famous was the --now lost -- statue
of Hebe, made of ivory and gold, by Naucydes (brother
of Polycletus) in the 5th century BC. This statue
was also shown on more recent coins from Argos.
Hecate is the Greek goddess of the crossroads. She
is most often depicted as having three heads; one
of a dog, one of a snake and one of a horse. She is
usually seen with two ghost hounds that were said
to serve her. Hecate is most often mispercepted as
the goddess of witchcraft or evil, but she did some
very good things in her time. One such deed was when
she rescued Persephone, (Demeter's daughter, the queen
of the Underworld and the maiden of spring), from
the Underworld. Hecate is said to haunt a three-way
crossroad, each of her heads facing in a certain direction.
She is said to appear when the ebony moon shines.
The Hecatonchires were born of Gaia and Uranus. They
were stronger, more overbearing, and more fierce than
even the mighty Cyclopes. They had 100 arms and 50
heads each. Their names were Cottus, Briareus, and
Gyges. Uranus was disgusted by these children, so
in a fit of outrage he cast them into Tartarus to
be locked up forever. Gaia was distressed about this
and asked the Titans for help in retrieving them.
Only Cronus agreed to help. Cronus waited for Uranus
under his bed. That night, when Uranus laid with Gaia,
Cronus castrated Uranus and cast his genitals behind
his head and into the sea. This caused foam in the
sea and blood drops on the land. The foam was the
birthplace of Aphrodite. The blood drops gave birth
to the giants and nymphs.
1. The daughter of Tityrus, and one of the Amazons.
It was expected of her to fight Achilles in a one-on-one
battle. Achilles killed her, although she did manage
to wound him first. 2. A trusted friend of Venus.
The goddess used her help to seduce Adonis.
The son of Priam and Hecuba. He possessed the gift
of prophecy, and after he fell into the hands of the
Greeks, prophesied their victory at Troy. After the
Trojan War he enslaved by Neoptolemus and taken to
Epirus. After Neoptolemus' death he married the --
also enslaved -- Andromache. He inherited a part of
Neoptolemus' realm and founded in Epirus a new Troy.
The Heliadae are from the Greek culture. The Heliadae
were the seven sons of Helios, the sun god and the
nymph Rhodus, daughter of Poseidon. The Heliadaes
all lived on the island Rhodes, named after Rhodus.
The names of the seven sons were Ochimus, Cercaphus,
Macareus ( or Macar), Actis, Tenages, Triopas, and
Candalus. They were all expert astrologers and seafarers,
but Macareus, Triopas, Actis, and Candalus grew jealous
of Tenages' talented skill of seafaring and science,
so all four of them killed Tenages. Quickly, Macareus
and the others escaped to Lesbos, Cos, Egypt, and
Caria respectively. Macareus was the only one who
stayed in Lesbos. Triopas, Candalus, and Actis went
through the journey. No one has ever heard from them
since. People say they married nymphs. In addition,
Triopas found the city of Cnidus and Triops is also
another name for Triopas. As for Macareus, he was
then the king of Lesbos. He assumed power for all
the neighboring islands. Lesbos (god), son of Lapithes
came to the country and married Macar's daughter Methymna.
This was the story of Macareus. Traditions say that
he was a native of Olenus, also a son of Crinacus
and a son of Aeolus. Macar, there married his sister
Canace. Ochimus and Cercaphus stayed in Rhodes and
had a peaceful life. Ochimus, the eldest son, seized
power and ruled over the island. He married the nymph
Hegetoria and soon both of them had a daughter named
Cydippe. After, Cydippe grew old and married her uncle
Cercaphus, who was his brother's (Ochimus) heir. Cercaphus
ruled after Ochimus on Rhodes. Cydippe had three sons:
Lindos, Camirus, and Ialysus who due in course shared
the island of Rhodes between them and founded three
cities that bore their names. A son of Heracles named
Tlepolemus was also a founder of the three cities
with Lindos, Camirus, and Ialysus. Another culture
or tradition says that Ochimus engaged Cydippe to
a man called Ocridion, but Cercaphus who was in love
with his niece, kidnapped her and fled away. Cercaphus
came back later when Ochimus was an old man. The Heliadae
are kind of related to the Heliades, daughters of
Helios. They were Helia, Merope, Phoebe, Aetheria,
The Heliades were three sisters in Greek mythology;
Aegiale, Aegle, and Aetheria. Their brother was Phaeton
and they were daughters of Helios, the sun god. When
Phaeton died driving Helios' chariot, they mourned
and grieved so much (4 months) that the gods took
pity on them. The gods changed all three into poplar
trees. Their arms turned into branches. Their legs
turned into a trunk, and their tears into amber. They
stayed poplar trees forever. Heliades means "children
of the sun".
A woody mountain in Boeotia, dedicated to the Muses.
Here, several famous springs were located, such as
the Aganippe and the Hippocrene.
Helios is the young Greek god of the sun. He is the
son of Hyperion and Theia. By the Oceanid Perse, he
became the father of Aeëtes, Circe, and Pasiphae.
His other two daughters are Phaethusa ("radiant")
and Lampetia ("shining"). He had a son, named Phaeton,
whom he once allowed to guide his chariot across the
sky. The unskilled youth could not control the horses
and fell towards his death. Each morning at dawn he
rises from the ocean in the east and rides in his
chariot, pulled by for horses - Pyrois, Eos, Aethon
and Phlegon -- through the sky, to descend at night
in the west. He sees and knows all, and was called
upon by witnesses. The reverence of the sun as a god
came from the east to Greece. Helios was worshipped
in various places of the Peloponnesos, but especially
on Rhodes, where each year gymnastic games were held
in his honor. Rhodos was also where the Colossus of
Rhodes (the sixth the seven wonders of the ancient
world) was built in his honor. This huge statue, measuring
32 meters (100ft), was built in 280 BC by Charès of
Lindos. In the earthquake of 224-223 BC the statue
broke off at the knees. On other places where he was
worshipped, there were herds dedicated to him, such
as on the island of Thrinacia (occasionally equated
with Sicily). Here the companions of Odysseus helped
themselves with the sacred animals. People sacrificed
oxen, rams, goats, and white horses to Helios. He
was represented as a youth with a halo, standing in
a chariot, occasionally with a billowing cloak. A
metope from the temple of Athena in the Hellenistic
Ilium represents him thus. He is also shown on much
more recent reliefs, concerning the worship of Mithra,
such as in the Mithraeum under the St. Prisca at Rome.
In early Christian art, Christ is sometimes represented
as Helios, such as in a mosaic in Mausoleum M or in
the necropolis beneath the St. Peter in Rome. His
attributes are the whip and the globe, and his sacred
animals were the cock and the eagle.
The son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, or of Zeus. He is
mythical ancestor of the Hellenes or Greeks. Hellen
was believed to be the father of the principal nations
of Greece. From his sons Aeolus and Dorus sprang the
Aeolians and Dorians, and from his son Xuthus came
the Achaeans and Ionians.
Hemera is the Greek goddess of day. She was born from
Erebus, darkness, and Nyx , night. Nyx was the daughter
of Chaos, and sister of Erebus. Erebus was among the
first beings, dwelling in Hades. He sprang from Chaos
at the beginning of time. Erebus' name was given to
the gloomy underground cavern which the dead walk
through on their way to the Underworld. Hemera emerged
from Tartarus as Nyx left it and returned to as she
was emerging from it. Thalassa, the sea, is the daughter
of Hemera and her brother Aether, light.
Hephaestus, the god of fire, especially the blacksmith's
fire, was the patron of all craftsmen, principally
those working with metals. He was worshiped predominantly
in Athens, but also in other manufacturing centres.
He was the god of volcanos and, some sources say,
he was originally the god of volcanos. Later, the
fire within them represented the smith's furnace.
Hephaestus was associated with Mount Etna, which is
on the island of Sicily. Known as the lame god, Hephaestus
was born weak and crippled. Displeased by the sight
of her son, Hera threw Hephaestus from Mount Olympus,
and he fell for a whole day before landing in the
sea. Nymphs rescued him and took him to Lemnos, where
the people of the island cared for him. But other
versions say Zeus threw him from Mount Olympus after
Hephaestus had sided with his mother, Hera, in a quarrel.
This legend says that Hephaestus fell for nine days
and nine nights, and he landed on the island of Lemnos.
It was on Lemnos where he built his palace and forges
under a volcano. To gain revenge for his rejection
by Hera, Hephaestus fashioned a magic throne, which
was presented to her on Mount Olympus. When Hera sat
on the throne, it entrapped her, making her a prisoner.
The gods on Mount Olympus pleaded with Hephaestus
to return to their heavenly domain, as to release
Hera, but he refused. Dionysus gave the smith god
wine, and when Hephaestus was intoxicated, Dionysus
took him back to Mount Olympus slumped over the back
of a mule. This scene was a favourite in Greek art.
Hephaestus released Hera after being given the beautiful
Aphrodite as his bride. Dionysus was rewarded by being
made one of the Olympian Pantheon. Hephaestus is known
as the son of Hera and Zeus, although Zeus had nothing
to do with the conception. Hephaestus was parthenogenetic,
meaning he was conceived without male fertilisation.
Hera was jealous of Zeus after he had an affair with
Metis, from which the goddess of prudence was pregnant
with Athena. However, Gaia had warned Zeus that Metis
would bear a daughter, whose son would overthrow him.
To prevent this, Zeus swallowed Metis, so he could
carry the child through to the birth himself, although
Zeus could not give birth naturally. For retribution
Hera produced (parthenogeny) Hephaestus, and legend
says, that Hephaestus split the head of Zeus with
an axe, from which Athena appeared fully armed. One
particular legend says that Hephaestus wished to marry
Athena, who was also a patron of smiths, but she refused
because she found him ugly. Another legend says that
Athena disappeared from their bridal bed but Hephaestus
did not see her vanish, and spilt his seed on the
floor. In a similiar version the semen fell from Athena's
thigh and from it was produced Erechtheus, who became
a king of Athens. (This relates to Erechtheus being
the son of Gaia, Earth.) Aphrodite, in some versions,
was the wife of Hephaestus, and he was suspicious
that Aphrodite had been committing adultery. To catch
her being unfaithful he fashioned an extraordinary
chain-link net, so fine and strong no one could escape
from it. Then one day he surprised Aphrodite and the
war god Ares as they lay together in bed. He threw
his magic net over them and hauled them before the
Olympian gods and exhibited them as they were, naked
and wrapped in each others arms. Hephaestus asked
the assembled gods for just retribution, but they
did the total opposite. The gods roared with laughter
at the sight of the naked lovers, after which they
allowed the couple to go free. According to Homer's
Iliad Hephaestus had a wife called Aglaea, who was
one of the Charites (Graces). Being a great craftsman
Hephaestus manufactured wonderful articles from various
materials, primarily from metal. With help from the
Cyclopes, who were his workmen and assistants, he
fashioned the thunderbolts for Zeus and his sceptre.
He made weapons and armour for the other gods and
heroes. For Athena, he made her shield or aegis and
for the god of love, Eros, he made the arrows. The
wonderful chariot which the sun god Helios rode across
the sky was made by Hephaestus and in some versions
it was a golden cup or goblet. He also fashioned the
invincible armour of Achilles. Hephaestus helped to
create the first woman, with the assistance of other
gods, after Zeus had ordered that there be a new kind
of human. Zeus plotted against Prometheus because
he and his race of mortals had only included one gender,
which was male, and so Hephaestus formed the first
woman from clay. Her name was Pandora (all gifts)
and from a supernatural jar, she released the evils
of the world on mankind. Hephaestus is usually shown
as an animated cripple bent over his anvil. He wears
a beard and is normally depicted as being ugly, and
in some art forms he walks with the aid of a stick.
Homer describes Hephaestus as lame and walking with
the aid of a stick. Hepheastus was worshiped mainly
in Athens, where the Temple of Hephaestus and Athena
(the Hephaesteum, also known as the Theseum) still
stands. It is the most complete example of a "Doric"
temple (one of the three orders in Greek architecture).
It was built in 449 BCE. and stands on a hill close
to the Agora at the foot of the Acropolis. Hephaestus
and Athena Ergane (protectress of craftsman and artisans)
were honoured with the festival "Chalceia" on the
30th day of the month Pyanopsion. The Romans took
Hephaestus as one of their own gods attaching the
myth and cult to their god of fire and calling him
The queen of the Olympian deities. She is the eldest
daughter of Cronus and Rhea, and wife and sister of
Zeus. Hera was mainly worshipped as a goddess of marriage
and birth. It is said that each year Hera's virginity
returns by bathing in the well Canathus. The children
of Hera and Zeus are the smith-god Hephaestus, the
goddess of youth Hebe, and the god of war Ares. According
to some sources, however, her children were conceived
without the help of a man, either by slapping her
hand on the ground or by eating lettuce: thus they
were born, not out of love but out of lust and hatred.
Writers represented Hera as constantly being jealous
of Zeus's various amorous affairs. She punished her
rivals and their children, among both goddesses and
mortals, with implacable fury. She placed two serpents
in the cradle of Heracles; she had Io guarded by a
hundred-eyed giant; she drove the foster-parents of
Dionysus mad, and tried to prevent the birth of Apollo
and Artemis. Even Zeus usually could not stand up
to her. Sometimes when he got angry, he chained her
to the mountain of Olympus by fastening anvils to
her feet. However, most of the time Zeus resorted
to stratagems: he either hid his illegitimate children,
or he changed them into animals. Hera's main sanctuary
was at Argos in the Peloponnesus, where she was worshipped
as the town goddess. Also, in this town the Heraia,
public festivities, were celebrated. Other temples
stood in Olympia, Mycene, Sparta, Paestum, Corinth,
Tiryns, Perachora, and on the islands of Samos and
Delos. The peacock (the symbol of pride; her wagon
was pulled by peacocks) and the cow (she was also
known as Bopis, meaning "cow-eyed", which was later
translated as "with big eyes") are her sacred animals.
The crow and the pomegranate (symbol of marriage)
are also dedicated to her. Other attributes include
a diadem and a veil. Hera is portrayed as a majestic,
solemn woman. Her Roman counterpart is Juno.
The name given to all people with both masculine and
feminine qualities, and more particularly applied
to a son of Aphrodite and Hermes. Hermaphroditus was
raised by nymphs in Phrygia. He was remarkably handsome.
One day, he was walking by a lake when the nymph of
the lake fell in love with him. She made advances
which the young man rebuffed. Hermaphroditus was attracted
by the clear water, undressed himself and jumped into
the lake. The nymph, Salmacis, saw him and embraced
him, but he tried to get away. Salmacis prayed to
the gods that they should never be separated, the
gods granted this wish and fused them into one body.
Hermaphroditus thereupon asked the gods that anybody
who bathed in this lake should lose his virility,
which was also granted.
Hermes, the herald of the Olympian gods, is son of
Zeus and the nymph Maia, daughter of Atlas and one
of the Pleiades. Hermes is also the god of shepherds,
land travel, merchants, weights and measures, oratory,
literature, athletics and thieves, and known for his
cunning and shrewdness. He was also a minor patron
of poetry. He was worshiped throughout Greece especially
in Arcadia. Festivals in honor of Hermes were called
Hermoea. According to legend, Hermes was born in a
cave on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia. Zeus had impregnated
Maia at the dead of night while all other gods slept.
When dawn broke amazingly he was born. Maia wrapped
him in swaddling bands, then resting herself, fell
fast asleep. Hermes, however, squirmed free and ran
off to Thessaly. This is where Apollo, his brother,
grazed his cattle. Hermes stole a number of the herd
and drove them back to Greece. He hid them in a small
grotto near to the city of Pylos and covered their
tracks. Before returning to the cave he caught a tortoise,
killed it and removed its entrails. Using the intestines
from a cow stolen from Apollo and the hollow tortoise
shell, he made the first lyre. When he reached the
cave he wrapped himself back into the swaddling bands.
When Apollo realized he had been robbed he protested
to Maia that it had been Hermes who had taken his
cattle. Maia looked to Hermes and said it could not
be, as he is still wrapped in swaddling bands. Zeus
the all powerful intervened saying he had been watching
and Hermes should return the cattle to Apollo. As
the argument went on, Hermes began to play his lyre.
The sweet music enchanted Apollo, and he offered Hermes
to keep the cattle in exchange for the lyre. Apollo
later became the grand master of the instrument, and
it also became one of his symbols. Later while Hermes
watched over his herd he invented the pipes known
as a syrinx (pan-pipes), which he made from reeds.
Hermes was also credited with inventing the flute.
Apollo, also desired this instrument, so Hermes bartered
with Apollo and received his golden wand which Hermes
later used as his heralds staff. (In other versions
Zeus gave Hermes his heralds staff). Being the herald
(messenger of the gods), it was his duty to guide
the souls of the dead down to the underworld, which
is known as a psychopomp. He was also closely connected
with bringing dreams to mortals. Hermes is usually
depicted with a broad-brimmed hat or a winged cap,
winged sandals and the heralds staff (kerykeion in
Greek, or Caduceus in Latin). It was often shown as
a shaft with two white ribbons, although later they
were represented by serpents intertwined in a figure
of eight shape, and the shaft often had wings attached.
The clothes he donned were usually that of a traveler,
or that of a workman or shepherd. Other symbols of
Hermes are the cock, tortoise and purse or pouch.
Originally Hermes was a phallic god, being attached
to fertility and good fortune, and also a patron of
roads and boundaries. His name coming from herma,
the plural being hermai herm was a square or rectangular
pillar in either stone or bronze, with the head of
Hermes (usually with a beard), which adorned the top
of the pillar, and male genitals near to the base
of the pillar. These were used for road and boundary
markers. Also in Athens they stood outside houses
to help fend off evil. In Athens of 415 BC, shortly
before the Athenian fleet set sail against Syracuse
(during the Peloponnesian War), all the herms throughout
Athens were defaced. This was attributed to people
who were against the war. Their intentions were to
cast bad omens on the expedition, by seeking to offend
the god of travel. (This has never been proved as
the true reason for the mutilation of the herms.)
The offspring of Hermes are believed to be Pan, Abderus
and Hermaphroditus. Hermes as with the other gods
had numerous affairs with goddesses, nymphs and mortals.
In some legends even sheep and goats. Pan, the half
man half goat, is believed to be the son of Hermes
and Dryope, the daughter of king Dryops. Pan terrified
his mother when he was born, so much so that she fled
in horror at the sight of her new born son. Hermes
took Pan to Mount Olympus were the gods reveled in
his laughter and his appearance and became the patron
of fields, woods, shepherds and flocks. Abderus, a
companion of the hero Heracles, is also thought to
be a son of Hermes, he was devoured by the Mares of
Diomedes, after Heracles had left him in charge of
the ferocious beasts. Hermaphroditus (also known as
Aphroditus) was conceived after the union of Hermes
and Aphrodite. He was born on Mount Ida but he was
raised by the Naiads (nymphs of freshwater). He was
a androgynous (having the characteristics of both
sexes) deity, depicted as either a handsome young
man but with female breasts, or as Aphrodite with
male genitals. It was Hermes who liberated Io, the
lover of Zeus, from the hundred-eyed giant Argus,
who had been ordered by Hera, the jealous wife of
Zeus, to watch over her. Hermes charmed the giant
with his flute, and while Argos slept Hermes cut off
his head and released Io. Hera, as a gesture of thanks
to her loyal servant, scattered the hundred eyes of
Argos over the tail of a peacock (Heras' sacred bird).
Hermes also used his ingenuity and abilities to persuade
the nymph Calypso to release Odysseus, the wandering
hero, from her charms. She had kept Odysseus captive,
after he was shipwrecked on her island Ogygia, promising
him immortality if he married her, but Zeus sent Hermes
to release Odysseus. Legend says that Calypso died
of grief when Odysseus sailed away. Hermes also saved
Odysseus and his men from being transformed into pigs
by the goddess and sorceress Circe. He gave them a
herb which resisted the spell. Hermes also guided
Eurydice back down to the underworld after she had
been allowed to stay for one day on earth with her
husband Orpheus. Known for his swiftness and athleticism,
Hermes was given credit for inventing foot-racing
and boxing. At Olympia a statue of him stood at the
entrance to the stadium and his statues where in every
gymnasium throughout Greece. Apart from herms, Hermes
was a popular subject for artists. Both painted pottery
and statuary show him in various forms, but the most
fashionable depicted him as a good-looking young man,
with an athletic body, and winged sandals and his
heralds staff. His Roman counterpart Mercury inherited
his attributes, and there are many Roman copies of
Greek artistic creations of Hermes
The daughter of Cecrops and by Hermes the mother of
1. One of the Hesperides. 2. The name of the nymph,
daughter of the Trojan river god Cebren. 3. "Evening-land",
an ancient name for Italy.
The Hesperides are nymphs who live in a beautiful
garden, situated in the Arcadian Mountains (Greece)
or, alternatively, at the western extreme of the Mediterranean,
near Mt. Atlas (hence they are sometimes considered
daughters of Atlas). In this garden grows the tree
with the golden apples which Gaia had given as a present
to Hera on her wedding to Zeus. This garden is guarded
by Ladon, a dragon with a hundred heads. The only
one who succeeded in obtaining some of the apples
was Heracles, who tricked Atlas to get them for him.
Thus Heracles completed the eleventh of his Twelve
Labors. The Hesperides are Aegle, Arethusa, Erytheia
and Hesperia. They are also called The African Sisters.
"Evening". Hesperius is regarded as the wife of Atlas
and mother of the Hesperides. Because of her beauty
she was also associated with Aphrodite.
Hesperos is the Greek personification of the evening
star. He is "the most splendid star that shines in
the environment." This is from the Greek accounts.
Phospheros is sometimes confused with him because
he is the morning star. Eos, the goddess of dawn,
is Hesperos' mother. Some people considered Atlas
his father, but no one really knows. Hesperos' children,
Ceyx and Daedalion, were both turned into birds. They
angered the gods and that was their punishment. It
is unknown what caused the gods¹ wrath. After that,
Hesperos thought he might want to have another child.
Hestia is the Greek goddess of the hearth fire, hence
presiding over domestic life. She is the eldest sister
of Zeus and the oldest daughter of Rhea and Cronus.
She was a virgin-goddess, and when wooed by Poseidon
and Apollo, swore by the head of Zeus to remain a
virgin. She had no throne, but tended the sacred fire
in the hall on the Olympus and every hearth on Earth
was her altar. She is the gentlest of all the Olympians.
Hestia also symbolized the alliance of the Metropolis
("mother-city") with the smaller settlements which
were founded in the colonies. The colonists took fire
from the hearth in the prytaneion and kept it burning
in their new towns. The Romans called her Vesta, and
build a temple for her in the Forum.
A Cyprian nymph who bore three sons of Zeus, among
The personification of sexual desire. Himerus is the
attendant of either Eros or Aphrodite.
The hippocampus was a fabled sea animal from Greek
mythology. It was found in classical myth. It resembles
a horse with the hind parts of a fish or dolphin.
The chariot of Poseidon was drawn by a hippocampus.
The name comes from the Greek hippos, horse; and kampos,
The fountain of the Muses on Mount Helicon. It was
produced by a stroke of the hoof of Pegasus. The name
comes from the Greek hippos, horse; and krene, fountain.
The Horae (the Hours) are the goddesses of the seasons
(the Greek had only three seasons; spring, summer
and winter), and the daughters of Zeus and Themis.
They are called Thallo, Auxo and Carpo, names which
denote budding, growth and ripening. Later, as Eunomia
("good order"), Dike ("justice") and Eirene ("peace")
they represented law and order in society. As goddesses
of nature they controlled the growth of plants; as
goddesses of order they maintained the stability of
A Greek vegetation divinity who was loved by both
Apollo and Zephyrus. He returned the love of Apollo,
but not of Zephyrus. When he and Apollo were throwing
the discus together, Zephyrus blew Apollo's discus
out of its course. It struck the head of Hyacinthus
and killed him. From his blood Apollo made spring
up a flower, the hyacinth.
The five daughters of Atlas and Aethra, and the sisters
of the Pleiades. In some traditions they were regarded
as the nurses of either Dionysus or the infant Zeus.
As a reward, they were placed in the sky as a constellation.
In other traditions, they were the sisters of Hyas.
The latter was killed in a hunting accident and the
Hyades died of grieve, and changed into stars. They
form the head of the constellation of Taurus. Their
name means "the rainy ones".
In Greek mythology, Hybris is the personification
of a lack of restraint and of insolence. He was a
not very powerful and spent much of his time among
Hygieia, one of the daughters of Asklepios (Asclepius)
and granddaughter of Apollo, took an important role
in the cult of Asklepios as a giver of health, often
identified with health and sometimes also called The
Health. She was worshipped and celebrated together
with her father on many places (Asklepieion) of the
Greek and Roman world. Therefore the cult was known
between the 7th and 6th centuries BCE as a local cult.
It spread out after the recognition through the oracle
of Apollo at Delphi and after the catasthrophic plague
in 429 and 427 BCE in Athens and 293 BCE in Rome.
The most oldest Asklepieion seems to be at Trikke
(the present day Trikala in Thessaly), while the most
biggest centres of worship were established in Epidaurus,
Corinth, Cos and Pergamon. Pausanias noted to us some
interesting details about offerings to Hygieia at
Asklepieion of Titane in Sikyonia, which was founded,
according to him, by Alexanor the grandson of Asklepios.
The statues of Health were covered there by masses
of women´s hair consecrating to the goddess and the
swathes of Babylonian clothing. The same offerings
are also known from the inscriptions, discovered in
the Cycladic island Paros. Hygieia was sung and represented
by many artistes from 4th century BCE until the end
of the Roman period. Ariphron, the Sikyonian, living
in the 4th century BCE, was the author of a hymn celebrating
her. The statues of Hygieia originated from well-known
masters - like Skopas, Timotheos (both of these works
at the present time in the National Archaeological
Museum of Athens) and Bryaxis. The Romen sculptors,
as well, liked to create her image. The good quality
of the Roman works of Hygieia are located in the museums´collections
in Epidaurus, Herakleion, Nicosia and Rome. The late
ancient ivory-cut relief from Walker´s galery in Liverpool
is presenting Hygieia in her typical form like a fine
young woman, feeding a huge sacred snake, which is
crowding arround her body. We learn also from Pausanias
about a special kind of a big, but not venomenal snake,
living in the region of Epidaurus. Sometimes Hygieia
is accompanied by Telesforos, the dwarf with a cowl
on his head, who is a symbol of the recovery. According
to some myths he was the brother of Hygieia and the
deity in Thrace. With the increasing importance of
Asklepios´ cult during the Roman period, Hygieia was
associated with the moon and her father, the most
worshipped of the gods, was considered as the equal
of the sun. The name of Hygieia survived until the
present times in the word hygiene and its components
and her sacred snake together with the rod of Asklepios
is the medical sign for actual medicine.
Hymen or Hymenaeus was the god of marriage and the
marriage feast or song. He is often depicted with
a marriage feast torch in his hand. This god was the
son of Aphrodite by Dionysus and therefore the full
brother of Priapus. His attributes are referred to
in the opening sections of Homer's Iliad as well as
playing a part in Virgil's Aeneid. He is a character
in both As You Like It and The Tempest by Shakespeare.
In Greek mythology he plays a prominent part as a
subordinate character in certain cycles, for example:
"Hymen had been called to bless with his presence
the nuptials of Orpheus with Eurydice; but though
he attended, he brought no happy omens with him. His
very torch smoked and brought tears into their eyes.
In coincidence with such prognostics, Eurydice, shortly
after her marriage, while wandering with the nymphs,
her companions, was seen by the shepherd Aristaeus,
who was struck by her beauty and made advances to
her." (Bulfinch's Mythology) Thus we see how the torches
were part of a casting for omens at the feast with
regard to the success of the marriage. He was also
the personification of the wedding hymn (humnos) which
made be the word from which the god's name derives
A legendary people believed to live "beyond the north
wind", at the edge of the world, in a land of unbroken
sunshine. Here they enjoy continuous and perfect happiness.
Apollo spends the winter among the Hyperboreans, and
also the heroes Heracles and Perseus visited them.
Hyperion is a Titan and a son of Uranus and Gaia.
He is married to his sister Theia and has three children
- Helios, Selene and Eos. The name Hyperion means
"he who goes before the sun" and may have arisen because
he was sometimes thought of as the sun.
Hypnos is the personification of sleep in Greek mythology.
He is the son of Nyx and Erebus, and the twin of Thanatos
("death"). Both he and his brother live in the underworld.
He gave Endymion the power of sleeping with open eyes
so he could see his beloved, the moon goddess Selene.
Hypnos is portrayed as a naked young man with wings
attached to his temples, or as a bearded man with
wings attached to his shoulders.